Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez NY-14

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez


Current Position: US Representative of NY District 14 since 2019
Affiliation: Democrat
District:  Eeastern part of The Bronx and part of north-central Queens.

Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez is a third-generation Bronxite, educator, and organizer. Ocasio-Cortez grew up experiencing the reality of New York’s rising income inequality, inspiring her to organize her community and run for office on a progressive platform with a campaign that rejects corporate PAC funds.

Taking office at age 29, Ocasio-Cortez is the youngest woman ever to serve in the United States Congress.[She has been noted for her substantial social media presence relative to her fellow members of Congress.

The Courage to Change | Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez

OnAir Post: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez NY-14



Source: Government page

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez 1Early Life

Born in the Parkchester neighborhood of The Bronx, Alexandria’s parents moved  the family 30 minutes north to Yorktown in search of a stronger public school for her and her brother. Alexandria’s mother was born and raised in Puerto Rico and worked throughout her childhood as a domestic worker. Alexandria’s father was a second-generation Bronxite, who ran a small business in The Bronx. Throughout her childhood, Representative Ocasio-Cortez traveled regularly to The Bronx to spend time with her extended family. From an early age, the stark contrast in educational opportunities available to her and her cousins, based on their respective zip codes, made an impression on her.

After high school, Alexandria attended Boston University, and graduated with degrees in Economics and International Relations (and tens of thousands of dollars in student loans). During this period she also had the opportunity to intern in the office of the late Senator Ted Kennedy. Her role in Senator Kennedy’s office provided a firsthand view of the heartbreak families endured after being separated by ICE. These experiences led the Congresswoman to organize Latinx youth in The Bronx and across the United States, eventually, she began work as an Educational Director with the National Hispanic Institute, a role in which she helped Americans, DREAMers and undocumented youth in community leadership and college readiness.

Following the financial crisis of 2008, tragedy struck when her father passed away suddenly from cancer. The medical bills and other growing expenses placed their home at risk of foreclosure. Alexandria pulled extra shifts to work as a waitress and bartender to support her family, deepening her commitment to issues impacting working-class people.

First Political Campaign

During the 2016 presidential election, Alexandria worked as a volunteer organizer for Bernie Sanders in the South Bronx, expanding her skills in electoral organizing and activism.

Shortly thereafter, she was inspired by demonstrations being led by indigenous communities at Standing Rock, South Dakota in opposition to a new pipeline. She decided to travel across the country to join them, and left the experience resolved to dedicate her life to public service. A few months later, she launched her first campaign for Congress.

“The campaign was a long shot from the start. ‘Everyone said, ‘She’s really cute, but maybe next time,’’ Ocasio-Cortez recalls. Crowley, the fourth-ranking House Democrat, was a prolific fundraiser who had been in Congress since 1999. Her campaign was mostly volunteers. Staffers wrote their job titles on Post-it notes above their desks in their small Queens office. Ever the activist, her campaign had an informal, flexible structure resembling “leaderless” social movements like the one she saw at Standing Rock.” – Time magazine, March 21,2019

In June 2018, Alexandria’s campaign shocked the political establishment, when she defeated incumbent Joe Crowley. Her campaign was driven entirely by grassroots volunteers and donations. The Congresswoman refused to take any contributions from corporations, a practice she continues to this day.

First Term

In January of 2019, Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez was sworn-in as the youngest woman and youngest Latina ever to serve in Congress. Her first piece of legislation was the Green New Deal resolution, which envisions a 10-year national mobilization, akin to FDR’s New Deal, that would put millions to work in good-paying, union jobs repairing the nation’s infrastructure, reducing air and water pollution, and fighting the intertwined economic, social, racial and climate crises crippling the country.

Over her first term, she introduced a total of 23 pieces of legislation. Among them is her Loan Shark Prevention Act, which would cap credit card interest rates at 15%. The Congresswoman also introduced a group of bills collectively titled ‘Just Society,’ which would raise the federal poverty line, include immigrants in social safety net programs, require federal contractors to pay a living wage, strengthen renters’ rights, and decrease recidivism.

In her first term, the Congresswoman saw three amendments pass into law, despite Republican control of the Senate and Presidency. One shifted $5 million from the failed war on drugs to treatment for opioid addiction and another secured $10 million to clean up toxic bombardment sites in Puerto Rico. Most notably, the Congresswoman also worked with Senator Schumer to include a Funeral Assistance Program into the COVID-19 relief package. To date, the program has reimbursed over a billion in funeral expenses to Americans who lost loved ones to COVID-19.

“There are some politicians who are very good on policy, and there are some politicians who are good communicators, and there are some politicians that have a way about them that relates very well to ordinary people. Alexandria has all three of those characteristics.” – Senator Bernie Sanders

The Congresswoman also quickly gained a reputation as an effective questioner in committee hearings. Through committee hearings, she pressured a major pharmaceutical company into lowering the price of a drug that reduces HIV transmission; forced a defense contractor to return $16.1 million in federal funding; and got Michael Cohen to state on the record that President Donald Trump was engaging in tax fraud and to divulge other information that helped the New York Attorney General open an investigation into the Trump Organization.

The Congresswoman also maintained a commitment to doing a town hall nearly every month of her first term, hosting a total of 25 town halls, all of which provided language translation services and accessibility for the hearing impaired. The District Office also opened cases for 1,400 constituents, assisting with everything from immigration visas and Social Security payments to small business loans and veterans benefits. Various institutions in NY-14 also received $470M in federal grants during our first term.

Second Term

In January 2021, Rep. AOC was sworn-in for her second term in Congress. Just a few days later, on January 6, the Capitol was breached for the first time since the War of 1812. Along with several colleagues, Rep. AOC hid in one of the office buildings until the Capitol was secured and the House was called to vote to verify the results of the 2020 presidential election. In the wake of the attacks, the Congresswoman called to expel Members of Congress who had voted to invalidate the elections and who had urged on those domestic terrorists that attacked the Capitol. She also voted for a second time to impeach President Trump.

In March, Congress passed the American Rescue Plan – President Biden’s plan to help the nation recover from COVID-19. The Congresswoman and other progressives fought hard to include key provisions, including an expanded Child Tax Credit, which most families began receiving in monthly installments that summer.

“When I ask [Rep. Ayanna] Pressley what popular narratives [about Rep. Ocasio-Cortez] miss, she cites humility. ‘She certainly did not set out to be an icon or even a history maker. I think it was her destiny, but there is no calculation.’ As Ocasio-Cortez puts it, ‘I don’t want to be a savior, I want to be a mirror.’” – Vanity Fair, October 28, 2020.

In April 2021, the Congresswoman reintroduced her Green New Deal resolution – growing the list of co-sponsors to over 115. In the three years since the resolution was first introduced, the Green New Deal has inspired over a dozen pieces of legislation and 10 regional Green New Deals.

In August 2021, after the federal eviction moratorium expired, Rep. Ocasio-Cortez joined Rep. Cori Bush for a sit-in on the Capitol Steps that lasted several days. Ultimately, the Biden administration reversed its position and extended the ban. Though their executive order was struck down by conservatives on the Supreme Court several weeks later, this time was invaluable for families and landlords trying to access Emergency Rental Relief and stay in their homes.

Later that month, Rep. Ocasio-Cortez worked with the State Department to help Afghan evacuees. Along with Rep. Barbara Lee, Rep. Ocasio-Cortez led 70 Members of Congress in calling on the Biden administration to increase the cap on refugees to 200,000 people.

In September, unprecedented floods devastated the Congresswoman’s district and other parts of New York and New Jersey. Sadly, several constituents were killed – having drowned in basement apartments. In the aftermath, the Congresswoman worked with the President and others to get one of the fastest FEMA disaster declarations in history. So far, almost 25,000 New York families have received $165 million in assistance.

By the end of 2021, Rep. Ocasio-Cortez had submitted 30 amendments, including one which doubled the funding to replace and update lead water infrastructure in schools and childcare programs — and another which prohibited funds from being used to provide weapons or military aid or military training to Saudi Arabia’s Rapid Intervention Force (RIF), the unit responsible for the murder of U.S. journalist Jamal Khashoggi.

In March of 2022, President Biden signed into law an omnibus bill to keep the federal government funded and open. This legislation included nearly $7 million in funding for 10 community projects that will serve New York’s 14th Congressional District. The community projects include youth violence interventions, educational supports, workforce training in green jobs and home healthcare, and support for Plaza Del Sol Health Center and Elmhurst Hospital.


Full Name:  Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez

Gender:  Female

Family:  Partner: Riley

Birth Date:  10/13/1989

Birth Place:  Bronx, NY

Home City:  Bronx, NY

Religion:  Catholic

Source: Vote Smart


A, Economics/International Relations, Boston University, 2011

Political Experience

Representative, United States House of Representatives, New York, District 14, 2019-present

Candidate, United States House of Representatives, New York, District 14, 2022


250 Cannon HOB

Washington, DC  20515

177 Dreiser Loop
Room 3

Bronx, NY  10475

Open Mondays and Tuesdays
9 am to 5 pm

1231 Lafayette Ave
Suite L-610

Bronx, NY  10474

Open Monday through Thursday
9 am to 5 pm


Email: Government page

Web Links


Source: none


Source: Open Secrets


In addition to their other responsibilities, Members of Congress are appointed by the Majority and Minority Leaders to serve on House committees. Committees are small groups of Members, both Democrats and Republicans, who hold committee hearings and debate legislation specific to the focus-area of that committee.

A committee is usually the first stop for a bill. So, for example, if a bill is focused on Wall Street regulation, it will usually first be debated by the Committee on Financial Services – because Wall Street regulation falls within that committee’s ‘jurisdiction.’ If a majority of Members of that Committee vote to support the bill, then it will go to the House floor where all Representatives vote on it.

Although Members can request which committee they serve on, they are not guaranteed a spot. House Leadership will sometimes appoint a Member to a committee because it aligns with their professional expertise or their district’s interest – for example, several Members of the House Armed Services Committee are veterans or represent districts with large military bases. Since committees can dictate which legislation makes it to the floor for a larger vote, there is sometimes intense competition for committee spots, and then seniority or more political considerations dictate who House Leadership chooses for those spots.

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez serves on The Committee of Oversight and Reform, which is the main investigative committee in the House. In January 2023, she was selected as the Vice Ranking Member — the #2 spot for Democrats on the committee. Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez has used these committee hearings to pressure big pharma into bringing down the price of prescription drugs. Under the Trump administration, she also led President Trump’s former lawyer Michael Cohen to state on the record that President Trump was engaging in tax fraud and to name other potential witnesses. And more famously, it was through an Oversight and Reform Hearing, that Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez pressured Mark Zuckerberg on Facebook’s failure to fact-check political advertising.

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez also serves as a first-time member on The Committee on Natural Resources and as Ranking Member of the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral ResourcesThis committeeconsiders legislation about American energy production, mineral lands and mining, fisheries and wildlife, public lands, oceans, irrigation and more.Already, Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez has used her time on the Natural Resources Committee to propose an amendment requiring the collecting of public health data in response to new drilling on federal lands


Unlike Committees, Members can usually join a Caucus without being appointed and there’s no limit on the number of members. Caucuses generally serve to build voting coalitions. For example, in 2019, the Congressional Progressive Caucus had enough of their Members willing to withhold their votes from a bill that gave big giveaways to major pharmaceutical companies– that House leadership was forced to alter the bill to protect employer-sponsored health plans from drug spikes, among other changes.

Rep. Ocasio-Cortez is a member of the Pro-Choice Caucus, the Democratic Women’s Caucus, the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, the Congressional Progressive Caucus, the LGBT Equality Caucus, Congressional Bangladesh Caucus and the Quiet Skies Caucus – a caucus in support of reducing aircraft noise pollution. The Congresswoman represents the community surrounding LaGaurdia Airport.


New Legislation

For a list of legislation sponsored or co-sponsored by Rep. AOC in chronological order, please see Congress.Gov.


Source: Government page

The Congresswoman’s first piece of legislation was the Green New Deal.

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez wants to invest in communities

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez is fighting to create a more just economy: one in which workers share in the profits their work creates, and corporations cannot endl

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez is a strong supporter of gun reform legislation.

Healthcare should be a human right, not a pri


In Congress, Rep. AOC consistently advocates for New York City’s Housing Authority, calling for full funding to meet its maintenance backlog.

For too long, undocumented immig

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez’s approach to public safety centers investing in our most vulnera

Congresswoman Ocasio-Cortez supports a process of self-det

Rep. AOC believes that now is the time to codify the reproductive rights afforded by Roe v. Wade into law. That is why she proudly co-sponsored and voted for the Women’s Health Protection Act (WHPA), which would legislatively protect abortion rights. As a member of the Pro-Choice Caucus, Rep. AOC also supports repealing the Hyde Amendment, which prohibits federal Medicaid funds from being used to cover abortion care and, in so doing, denies healthcare to millions of low-income families. For more on the Congresswoman’s work on this issue, please read on below.

The Congresswoman is committed to supporting our veterans.

More Information


Source: Government page

Resources for grant seekers: Grant Resource Guide, Grants Newsletter, and Grants Webinars

Social Security benefits are an essential safety net for many people. Social Security benefits range from financial assistance to healthcare benefits.

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Source: Wikipedia

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez NY-14New York’s 14th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in New York City, represented by Democrat Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.

The district includes the eastern part of The Bronx and part of north-central Queens. The Queens portion includes the neighborhoods of Astoria, College Point, Corona, East Elmhurst, Elmhurst, Jackson Heights, and Woodside. The Bronx portion of the district includes the neighborhoods of City Island, Country Club, Van Nest, Morris Park, Parkchester, Pelham Bay, Schuylerville, and Throggs Neck. Roughly half of the population of the district is of Hispanic or Latino heritage, making it one of the more Latino districts in New York. Before redistricting for the 2012 election, much of the area was in New York’s 7th congressional district.


Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (ˌkɑːsi kɔːrˈtɛz oh-KAH-see-oh kor-TEZ, Spanish: [aleɣˈsandɾja oˈkasjo koɾˈtes]; born October 13, 1989), also known by her initials AOC, is an American left-wing politician and activist. She has served as the U.S. representative for New York’s 14th congressional district since 2019, as a member of the Democratic Party.

Ocasio-Cortez was born in The Bronx, where she lived for five years before moving to Yorktown Heights. She attended Yorktown High School and later Boston University, where she double-majored in international relations and economics, graduating cum laude. She then moved back to the Bronx, becoming an activist and working as a waitress and bartender.

On June 26, 2018, Ocasio-Cortez drew national recognition when she won the Democratic Party‘s primary election for New York’s 14th congressional district. She defeated Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, a 10-term incumbent, in what was widely seen as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election primaries.[3][4][5] She easily won the November general election, defeating Republican Anthony Pappas. She was reelected in the 2020 and 2022 elections.

Taking office at age 29, Ocasio-Cortez is the youngest woman[6][7] and the first female member of the Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) to be elected to Congress.[c][9] She advocates a progressive platform that includes support for workplace democracy,[10] Medicare for All, tuition-free public college, a federal jobs guarantee, a Green New Deal, and abolishing the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).

Early life and education

Ocasio-Cortez was born in the New York City borough of the Bronx on October 13, 1989, the daughter of Sergio Ocasio-Roman and Blanca Ocasio-Cortez (née Cortez).[11] She has a younger brother named Gabriel.[12] Her father was born in the Bronx to a Puerto Rican family and became an architect; her mother was born in Puerto Rico.[13][14][15] Ocasio-Cortez lived with her family in an apartment in the Bronx neighborhood of Parkchester[14] until she was five, when the family moved to a house in suburban Yorktown Heights.[14][16]

Ocasio-Cortez attended Yorktown High School, graduating in 2007.[17] In high school and college, Ocasio-Cortez went by the name of “Sandy Ocasio”.[18] She came in second in the microbiology category of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair in 2007 with a research project on the effect of antioxidants on the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.[19][20] In a show of appreciation for her efforts, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory named a small asteroid after her: 23238 Ocasio-Cortez.[21][22] In high school, she took part in the National Hispanic Institute‘s Lorenzo de Zavala (LDZ) Youth Legislative Session. She later became the LDZ Secretary of State while she attended Boston University. Ocasio-Cortez had a John F. Lopez Fellowship.[23]

After graduating from high school, Ocasio-Cortez enrolled at Boston University. Her father died of lung cancer in 2008 during her second year,[24][25] and Ocasio-Cortez became involved in a lengthy probate dispute to settle his estate. She has said that the experience helped her learn “first-hand how attorneys appointed by the court to administer an estate can enrich themselves at the expense of the families struggling to make sense of the bureaucracy”.[26] During college, Ocasio-Cortez was an intern for U.S. senator Ted Kennedy in his section on foreign affairs and immigration issues.[27] In interviews, she said she was the only Spanish speaker in the office and the sole person responsible for assisting Spanish-speaking constituents.[27][28][29] Ocasio-Cortez graduated cum laude[30] from Boston University in 2011 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in both international relations and economics.[31][28][32]

Early career

After college, Ocasio-Cortez moved back to the Bronx and took a job as a bartender and waitress to help her mother—a house cleaner and school bus driver—fight foreclosure of their home.[33][34] She later launched Brook Avenue Press, a now-defunct publishing firm for books that portrayed the Bronx in a positive light.[35][36] Ocasio-Cortez also worked for the nonprofit National Hispanic Institute.[23][37][38]

During the 2016 primary, Ocasio-Cortez worked as an organizer for Bernie Sanders’s presidential campaign.[39] After the general election, she traveled across America by car, visiting places such as Flint, Michigan, and Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota, and speaking to people affected by the Flint water crisis and the Dakota Access Pipeline.[40] In an interview she recalled her December 2016 visit to Standing Rock as a tipping point, saying that before that, she had believed that the only way to run for office effectively was to have access to wealth, social influence, and power. But her visit to North Dakota, where she saw others “putting their whole lives and everything that they had on the line for the protection of their community”, inspired her to begin to work for her own community.[41] One day after she visited North Dakota, she got a phone call from Brand New Congress, which was recruiting progressive candidates (her brother had nominated her soon after Election Day 2016).[42] She has credited Jabari Brisport‘s unsuccessful City Council campaign with restoring her belief in electoral politics, in running as a socialist candidate, and in Democratic Socialists of America as an organization.[43]

U.S. House of Representatives



Ocasio-Cortez’s congressional campaign logo was inspired by “revolutionary posters and visuals from the past”.[44]

Ocasio-Cortez began her campaign in April 2017[6] while waiting tables and tending bar at Flats Fix, a taqueria in New York City’s Union Square.[45] “For 80 percent of this campaign, I operated out of a paper grocery bag hidden behind that bar,” she told Bon Appétit.[46] She was the first person since 2004 to challenge Joe Crowley, the Democratic Caucus Chair, in the primary. She faced a financial disadvantage, saying, “You can’t really beat big money with more money. You have to beat them with a totally different game.”[47][48][26] Ocasio-Cortez’s campaign undertook grassroots mobilization and did not take donations from corporations.[6] Her campaign posters’ designs were said to have taken inspiration from “revolutionary posters and visuals from the past”.[44]

The candidates’ only face-to-face encounter during the campaign occurred on a local political talk show, Inside City Hall, on June 15. The format was a joint interview conducted by Errol Louis, which NY1 characterized as a debate.[49] A debate in the Bronx was scheduled for June 18, but Crowley did not participate. He sent former New York City Council member Annabel Palma in his place.[50][51][52]


Ocasio-Cortez was endorsed by progressive and civil rights organizations such as MoveOn[53] and Democracy for America.[39] Then-Governor Cuomo endorsed Crowley,[54] as did both of New York’s U.S. senators, Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand,[55] multiple U.S. representatives, various local elected officials and trade unions, and groups such as the Sierra Club,[56] Planned Parenthood,[56] the Working Families Party,[57] NARAL Pro-Choice America,[58] and Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, among others.[59] California representative Ro Khanna, a Justice Democrat like Ocasio-Cortez,[55][6] initially endorsed Crowley but later endorsed Ocasio-Cortez in an unusual dual endorsement.[60]

Primary election
Ocasio-Cortez with Kerri Evelyn Harris

Ocasio-Cortez received 57.13% of the vote (15,897) to Crowley’s 42.5% (11,761), defeating the 10-term incumbent by almost 15 percentage points on June 26, 2018.[61] The result shocked many political commentators and analysts and immediately garnered nationwide attention. Many news sources, including Time, CNN, The New York Times, and The Guardian mentioned how the win completely defied their predictions and expectations.[39][62][63][4] She was outspent by a margin of 18 to 1 ($1.5 million to $83,000) but won the endorsement of some influential groups on the party’s left.[64] Crowley conceded defeat on election night,[65] but did not telephone Ocasio-Cortez that night to congratulate her, fueling short-lived speculation that he intended to run against her in the general election.[66]

Bernie Sanders and Noam Chomsky congratulated her.[67][68] Several commentators noted the similarities between Ocasio-Cortez’s victory over Crowley and Dave Brat‘s Tea Party movement-supported 2014 victory over House Majority Leader Eric Cantor in the Republican primary for Virginia’s 7th congressional district.[69][70] Like Crowley, Cantor was a high-ranking member in his party’s caucus.[71] After her primary win, Ocasio-Cortez endorsed several progressive primary challengers to Democratic incumbents nationwide,[72] capitalizing on her fame and spending her political capital in a manner unusual even[tone] for unexpected primary winners.[73]

Without campaigning for it, Ocasio-Cortez won the Reform Party primary as a write-in candidate in a neighboring congressional district, New York’s 15th, with a total vote count of nine, highest among all 22 write-in candidates. She declined the nomination.[74][75]

General election

Ocasio-Cortez faced Republican nominee Anthony Pappas in the November 6 general election.[76] Pappas, an economics professor, did not actively campaign. The 14th district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+29, making it New York City’s sixth-most Democratic district, with registered Democrats outnumbering Republicans almost six to one.[77][78]

Ocasio-Cortez was endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and figures, including former president Barack Obama and U.S. senator Bernie Sanders.[79][80] She spoke at the Netroots Nation conference in August 2018, and was called “the undisputed star of the convention”.[81]

Crowley remained on the ballot as the nominee of the Working Families Party (WFP) and the Women’s Equality Party (WEP). Neither he nor the WFP party actively campaigned, both having endorsed Ocasio-Cortez after the Democratic primary.[82] Ocasio-Cortez called the WEP, which Governor Cuomo created ahead of the 2014 New York gubernatorial election, a cynical, centrist group that endorsed male incumbents over female challengers like her and Cynthia Nixon.[83] Former Connecticut senator Joe Lieberman, who won reelection in 2006 on a third-party line after losing the Democratic Primary in 2006, penned a July 17 column in the Wall Street Journal expressing hope that Crowley would actively campaign on the WFP ballot line.[84] WFP Executive Director Dan Cantor wrote an endorsement of, and apology to, Ocasio-Cortez for the New York Daily News; he asked voters not to vote for Crowley if his name remained on the general election ballot.[85]

Ocasio-Cortez won the election with 78% of the vote (110,318) to Pappas’s 14% (17,762). Crowley, on the WFP and WEP lines, received 9,348 votes (6.6%). Her election was part of a broader Democratic victory in the 2018 midterm elections, as the party gained control of the House by picking up 41 seats.[86] Saikat Chakrabarti, who had been her campaign co-chair, became chief of staff for her congressional office.[87] His departure in 2019 drew considerable speculation as to whether Ocasio-Cortez was trying to implement a more moderate strategy.[88]

Media coverage

The first media network to give Ocasio-Cortez a platform and extensively cover her campaign and policies was The Young Turks, a left-wing online news program.[6] After her primary win, she quickly garnered nationwide media attention, including numerous articles and TV talk-show appearances.[89][90] She also drew a great amount of media attention when she and Sanders campaigned for James Thompson in Kansas in July 2018.[91] A rally in Wichita had to be moved from a theater with a capacity of 1,500 when far more people said[tone] they would attend. The event drew 4,000 people, with some seated on the floor.[92] In The New Yorker, Benjamin Wallace-Wells wrote that while Sanders remained “the de-facto leader of an increasingly popular left, [he is unable to] do things that do not come naturally to him, like supply hope.” Wallace-Wells suggested that Ocasio-Cortez had made Sanders’s task easier, as he could point to her success to show that ideas “once considered to be radical are now part of the mainstream”.[92]

Until she defeated incumbent Joe Crowley in the 2018 Democratic primary, Ocasio-Cortez received little coverage on most traditional news media outlets.[93][94] Jimmy Dore interviewed her when she first announced her candidacy in June 2017.[95] After her primary win, Brian Stelter wrote that progressive-media outlets, such as The Young Turks and The Intercept, “saw the Ocasio-Cortez upset coming” in advance.[70] Margaret Sullivan wrote in The Washington Post that traditional metrics of measuring a campaign’s viability, like total fundraising, were contributing to a “media failure” and that “they need to get closer to what voters are thinking and feeling: their anger and resentment, their disenfranchisement from the centers of power, their pocketbook concerns.”[94]

Ocasio-Cortez’s campaign was featured on the cover of the June 2018 edition of The Indypendent,[96][97] a free New York City-based monthly newspaper. In a tweet she hailed the cover appearance on “NYC’s classic monthly” as an important breakthrough for her campaign.[98] Otherwise Ocasio-Cortez was barely mentioned in print until her primary win.[99]

Ocasio-Cortez was one of the subjects of the 2018 Michael Moore documentary Fahrenheit 11/9; it chronicled her primary campaign.[100][101]

In an attempt to embarrass Ocasio-Cortez just before she took office, Twitter user “AnonymousQ” shared a video dating to Ocasio-Cortez’s college years: a Boston University student-produced dance video in which she briefly appeared.[102] Many social media users came to her defense, inspiring memes and a Twitter account syncing the footage to songs like “Mambo No. 5” and “Gangnam Style“.[103] Ocasio-Cortez responded by posting a video of herself dancing to Edwin Starr‘s “War” outside her congressional office.[102]

Elizabeth Warren wrote the entry on Ocasio-Cortez for 2019’s Time 100.[104] The documentary Knock Down the House, directed by Rachel Lears, which focuses on four female Democrats in the 2018 United States elections who were not career politicians—Ocasio-Cortez, Amy Vilela, Cori Bush and Paula Jean Swearengin—premiered at the 2019 Sundance Film Festival. Ocasio-Cortez was the only one of the women featured in the film to win.[105][106] It was released by Netflix on May 1, 2019.[107] Ocasio-Cortez also appeared in Lears’s 2022 film To the End, which focuses on the effects of climate change. The film debuted at the 2022 Sundance Film Festival[108][109] and was presented at the Tribeca Film Festival in June 2022.[110]


Michelle Caruso-Cabrera challenged Ocasio-Cortez in the 2020 Democratic primary.[111] After Ocasio-Cortez won the nomination, Caruso-Cabrera reorganized and ran in the general election as the Serve America Movement nominee.[112] Ocasio-Cortez’s Republican challengers in the general election included nominee John Cummings, a former police officer, and Antoine Tucker, a write-in candidate.[112][113]

The American Prospect wrote in October 2020 that Ocasio-Cortez was “spending the 2020 campaign running workshops” for constituents on workplace organizing, fighting eviction, and organizing childcare.[114] They noted that Ocasio-Cortez was often not featured in the streamed workshops, saying the “strategy decentralizes the candidate from her own campaign.”[114]

On October 20, 2020, Ocasio-Cortez hosted a Twitch stream of the social deduction game Among Us, with fellow congresswoman Ilhan Omar, and many established streamers such as Pokimane, Hasan Piker, DrLupo, and mxmtoon.[115] The stream peaked with over 400,000 viewers and, according to The Guardian's Joshua Rivera, succeeded in humanizing her.[116][117][118][119] Ocasio-Cortez again streamed Among Us on Twitch on November 27, 2020, with Hasan Piker, xQc, ContraPoints and Canadian MP Jagmeet Singh to raise money for food pantries, eviction defense legal aid, and community support organizations to assist those suffering economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic.[120] The stream raised $200,000 and Ocasio-Cortez wrote, “This is going to make such a difference for those who need it most right now.”[121]


Ocasio-Cortez was unopposed in the Democratic primary.[122] She defeated Republican Tina Forte and Conservative Party nominee Desi Cuellar in the general election.[123]


Investment banker Marty Dolan, a moderate Democrat, ran against Ocasio-Cortez in the primary. She won overwhelmingly.[124]


Ocasio-Cortez’s maiden speech as a Representative, addressing the 2018–2019 United States federal government shutdown

Taking office at age 29, Ocasio-Cortez is the youngest woman ever to serve in the United States Congress, and also the youngest member of the 116th Congress.[125]

When the 116th Congress convened on January 3, 2019, Ocasio-Cortez entered with no seniority but with a large social media presence. Axios credited her with “as much social media clout as her fellow freshman Democrats combined”.[126] Since June 2024, she has 13.1 million X (formerly Twitter) followers,[127] up from 1.4 million in November 2018[126] and surpassing Nancy Pelosi.[128] She has 8.1 million Instagram followers as of June 2024[129] and 1.8 million followers on Facebook as of June 2024.[130] Her colleagues appointed her to teach them social media lessons upon her arrival in Congress.[130] In early July 2019 two lawsuits were filed against her for blocking Joey Salads and Dov Hikind on Twitter in light of the Second Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that it was a violation of the First Amendment for President Trump to block people on Twitter.[131][132] On November 4, 2019, it was announced that they settled the lawsuit with Ocasio-Cortez issuing a statement apologizing for the Twitter block.[133][134]

In a 2019 interview, Ocasio-Cortez said she had stopped using her private Facebook account and was minimizing her usage of all social media accounts and platforms, calling them a “public health risk”.[135][136]


In November 2018, on the first day of congressional orientation, Ocasio-Cortez participated in a climate change protest outside the office of House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.[137] Also that month, she backed Pelosi’s bid to be Speaker of the House once the Democratic Party reclaimed the majority on the condition that Pelosi “remains the most progressive candidate for speaker”.[138]

Ocasio-Cortez and Senator Bernie Sanders in December 2018

During the orientation for new members hosted by the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Ocasio-Cortez wrote on Twitter in December 2018 about the influence of corporate interests by sponsors such as the American Enterprise Institute and the Center for Strategic and International Studies: “Lobbyists are here. Goldman Sachs is here. Where’s labor? Activists? Frontline community leaders?”[139][140][141]

When Ocasio-Cortez made her first speech on the floor of Congress in January 2019, C-SPAN tweeted the video. Within 12 hours, the video of her four-minute speech set the record as C-SPAN’s most-watched Twitter video of a member of the House of Representatives.[142]


In February 2019, speaking at a Congressional hearing with a panel of representatives from campaign finance watchdog groups, Ocasio-Cortez questioned the panel about ethics regulations as they apply to both the president and members of Congress. She asserted that no regulations prevent lawmakers “from being bought off by wealthy corporations”.[143] With more than 37.5 million views, the clip became the most-watched political video posted on Twitter.[144]

When President Donald Trump‘s former lawyer Michael Cohen appeared before the Oversight Committee in February 2019, Ocasio-Cortez asked him whether Trump had inflated property values for bank or insurance purposes and where to get more information on the subject.[145] Cohen’s reply implied that Trump may have committed tax and bank fraud in his personal and business tax returns, financial statements and real-estate filings.[146][147] The president of the American Constitution Society named Ocasio-Cortez as the committee member best at obtaining specific information from Cohen about Trump’s “shady practices, along with a road map for how to find out more”.[148] New York Times columnist David Brooks praised her skill in questioning Cohen.[149] The exchange between Ocasio-Cortez and Cohen prompted an investigation by New York Attorney General Letitia James, who referred to it in August 2020 when filing legal action to compel Trump’s companies to comply with subpoenas about financial information, and to compel his son Eric Trump to testify.[150] Further developments as a result of the exchange saw James form a civil investigation and lawsuit against The Trump Organization regarding potential financial fraud, which resulted in a fine of $354 million and a ban on Trump doing business in New York for two to three years.[151][152][153]

Media coverage

Sanders rally Council Bluffs, Iowa

According to reports in March 2019, Ocasio-Cortez continued to receive media coverage early in her congressional tenure on par with that of 2020 presidential candidates[154] and was considered “one of the faces of the Democratic party”[155] and one of the most talked-about politicians in the United States.[156] Between July 8 and 14, 2019, she drew more social media attention than the Democratic presidential candidates. Tracking company NewsWhip found that interactions with news articles on Ocasio-Cortez numbered 4.8 million, while no Democratic presidential candidate got more than 1.2 million. David Bauder of the Associated Press wrote that Trump’s supporters were thus having “some success” in having “Ocasio-Cortez be top of mind when people think of” the Democratic Party.[157]

According to a Media Matters for America study, Ocasio-Cortez has been intensely discussed on sister television channels Fox News and Fox Business, being mentioned every day from February 25 to April 7, 2019, for a total of 3,181 mentions in 42 days (an average of around 75 per day). The Guardian's David Smith wrote that this is evidence that Fox is “obsessed by Ocasio-Cortez, portraying her as a radical socialist who threatens the American way of life”.[158] Brian Stelter of CNN Business found that between January and July 2019, she had nearly three times as many mentions on Fox News as on CNN and MSNBC, and seven times the coverage of James Clyburn, a Democratic leader in the House of Representatives. Stelter wrote that the attention Ocasio-Cortez is receiving has caused “the perception, particularly on the right, that her positions and policies are representative of the Democratic Party as a whole”.[159] In a CBS News and YouGov poll of almost 2,100 American adults conducted from July 17 to 19, it was found that Republican respondents were more aware of Ocasio-Cortez than Democratic respondents. She had very unfavorable ratings among Republican respondents and favorable ratings among Democratic respondents.[160]

In March 2019, PolitiFact reported that Ocasio-Cortez is “one of the most targeted politicians for hoax claims, despite the fact that she just entered Congress as a freshman”. Fake quotes attributed to her, fake photos of her, and false rumors about her have spread on social media. Some of these have originated from 4chan and r/The_Donald.[161] By July 2019, the fake material included attributing things Trump said to Ocasio-Cortez, such as “I have a very good brain and I’ve said lots of things.”[162] On July 18, 2019, Charlie Rispoli, a police officer from Gretna, posted on Facebook an apparent threat to shoot Ocasio-Cortez, calling her a “vile idiot” who “needs a round, and I don’t mean the kind she used to serve” as a bartender. Rispoli posted the comment in response to a fake news article that falsely quoted Ocasio-Cortez as saying, “We pay soldiers too much”. A photo from the article also had the label “satire“.[163] Rispoli was fired for his post and his Facebook account was deleted.[164]

Ocasio-Cortez is known to wear red lipstick, usually by the American makeup brand Stila Cosmetics in the shade “Beso”, as a style trait of Latina women from the Bronx.[165] In a skincare tutorial for Vogue, she explained that beauty and femininity are important to her because these things are often used against women in politics and society, and that self-love is like a “mini protest” against misogynistic critiques.[166]

Met Gala appearance
Graphic representation of the Tax the Rich print from AOC’s Met Gala dress

Ocasio-Cortez attended the 2021 Met Gala, which had the theme “In America: a Lexicon of Fashion”. The Met Gala is an annual fundraiser for the Metropolitan Museum of Art that is overseen by Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour, who selects every invitee and designer pairing. Ocasio-Cortez wore an organza gown emblazoned with the phrase “Tax the Rich”. As an elected official in New York City, she was considered a guest of the museum, and as such did not have to buy a ticket, which costs persons other than elected officials at least $35,000. The dress’s designer, Aurora James, also invited her boyfriend Benjamin Bronfman, the son of a billionaire. Critics, both conservative and liberal, rebuked Ocasio-Cortez for attending an event where guests were not required to wear masks (employees and event staff were required to do so), and one known for its opulent display of wealth and social status. She responded that they were using a sexist double standard and that she “punctured the fourth wall of excess and spectacle”. James also believed that the extremely wealthy people in attendance needed to see the message in person.[167]

In September 2021, the American Accountability Foundation filed an ethics complaint against Ocasio-Cortez for attending the Met Gala. The AAF claimed that her attendance amounted to accepting an illegal gift since her estimated $35,000 ticket was paid for by Condé Nast, a for-profit company, not a charity.[168][169][170]

“The Squad”

Ocasio-Cortez is a member of an informal group of progressive members of Congress called “The Squad“, initially including Ilhan Omar, Ayanna Pressley, and Rashida Tlaib.[171] On July 14, 2019, Trump attacked the Squad (which had only four members at the time) in a tweet, saying that they should “go back and help fix” the countries they came from rather than criticize the American government.[172] He continued to make similar comments over the next several days, even though three of the women, including Ocasio-Cortez, were born in the United States. Ocasio-Cortez responded in a tweet that “the President’s words [yesterday], telling four American Congresswomen of color ‘go back to your own country’ is hallmark language of white supremacists.”[173] She later added, “We don’t leave the things that we love, and when we love this country, what that means is that we propose the solutions to fix it.”[174] Days later, Trump falsely asserted that Ocasio-Cortez called “our country and our people ‘garbage'”; she had actually said that Americans should not be content with moderate policies that are “10% better from garbage”.[175] Trump also falsely claimed that Ocasio-Cortez said “illegal immigrants are more American” than Americans who tried to keep them out; she actually said that “women and children on that border that are trying to seek refuge and opportunity” in America “are acting more American” than those who tried to keep them out.[176] The Squad grew in 2020, 2022, and 2024, with Jamaal Bowman, Cori Bush, Greg Casar, Summer Lee, and Delia Ramirez joining.[177]

Green New Deal

H. Res. 109: “Recognizing the duty of the Federal Government to create a Green New Deal”; the first piece of legislation authored by Ocasio-Cortez.

Ocasio-Cortez submitted her first piece of legislation, the Green New Deal, to the House on February 7, 2019. She and Senator Ed Markey released a joint non-binding resolution laying out the main elements of a 10-year “economic mobilization” that “would phase out fossil fuel use and overhaul the nation’s infrastructure.”[178] Their plan called for implementing the “social cost of carbon” that was part of the Obama administration’s plans to address climate change. In the process it aimed to create jobs.[178] According to CNBC, an initial outline the Green New Deal called for “completely ditching fossil fuels, upgrading or replacing ‘every building’ in the country and ‘totally overhaul[ing] transportation’ to the point where ‘air travel stops becoming necessary'”. The outline set a goal of having the U.S. “creating ‘net zero‘ greenhouse gases in 10 years. Why ‘net zero’? The lawmakers explained: ‘We set a goal to get to net-zero, rather than zero emissions, in 10 years because we aren’t sure that we’ll be able to fully get rid of farting cows and airplanes that fast.'”[179] Activist groups such as Greenpeace and the Sunrise Movement came out in favor of the plan. No Republican lawmakers voiced support.[180][181] The plan gained support from some Democratic senators, including Elizabeth Warren, Bernie Sanders and Cory Booker;[182] other Democrats, such as Senator Dianne Feinstein and House speaker Nancy Pelosi, dismissed the proposal (Pelosi has referred to it as “the green dream, or whatever they call it”).[183]

On March 26, Senate Republicans called for an early vote on the Green New Deal without allowing discussion or expert testimony. Markey said Republicans were trying to “make a mockery” of the Green New Deal debate and called the vote a “sham”. In protest, Senate Democrats voted “present” or against the bill, resulting in a 57–0 defeat on the Senate floor.[184][185]

In March 2019, a group of UK activists proposed that the Labour Party adopt a similar plan, “Labour for a Green New Deal”. The group said it was inspired by the Sunrise Movement and the work Ocasio-Cortez has done in the US.[186]

Online harassment from Paul Gosar

In November 2021, Representative Paul Gosar posted a version of the title sequence of the anime series Attack on Titan on social media that he had edited with the faces of Ocasio-Cortez, Joe Biden, and himself superimposed on the show’s characters, depicting Gosar attacking them with swords and killing Ocasio-Cortez. Speaker Nancy Pelosi called for law enforcement and the House Ethics Committee to investigate it as a threat.[187]

Pelosi opened discussion on the House floor saying that Gosar’s actions demanded a response. “We cannot have members joking about murdering each other or threatening the president of the United States. This is both an indictment of our elected officials and an insult to the institution of the House of Representatives. It’s not just about us as members of Congress. It is a danger that it represents to everyone in the country.”[188]

When Republican House members refused to condemn the video, Ocasio-Cortez responded that she believed the video was “part of a pattern that normalizes violence”, adding, “I believe this is a part of a concerted strategy and I think it’s very important for us to draw a strict line a strong line for material consequence”. She gave a six-minute floor speech, saying, “This is not about me. This is not about Representative Gosar. This is about what we’re willing to accept.” The House voted to censure Gosar, mostly along party lines. The last time the House censured a lawmaker was in 2010.[189][190]

Verbal harassment from Ted Yoho

On July 20, 2020, Republican representatives Ted Yoho and Roger Williams accosted Ocasio-Cortez on the steps of the Capitol, where Yoho (as overheard by a journalist) called her “disgusting” and told her, “You are out of your freaking mind” for recently suggesting that poverty and unemployment were driving a spike in crime in New York City during the COVID-19 pandemic amid her ongoing advocacy for cutting police budgets. Ocasio-Cortez told Yoho he was being “rude”. As Ocasio-Cortez walked away from Yoho into the Capitol, Yoho called her a “fucking bitch”.[191][192] Yoho addressed the matter on the House floor and, without naming Ocasio-Cortez, apologized for the “abrupt manner of the conversation” with her, claiming that “offensive name calling, words attributed to me by the press, were never spoken to my colleagues”, and concluding: “I cannot apologize for my passion”.[193][194] Ocasio-Cortez responded with a speech stating that the incident was emblematic of a “culture … accepting of violence and violent language against women … In using that language, in front of the press, he gave permission to use that language against his wife, his daughters, women in his community, and I am here to stand up to say that is not acceptable.”[195][196]

Reaction to Andrew Cuomo scandals

In April 2020, Ocasio-Cortez was one of 77 representatives to call for public reports of data regarding COVID-19 cases in nursing homes and long-term care facilities.[197] In March 2021, Ocasio-Cortez and Representative Jamaal Bowman called for New York governor Andrew Cuomo to resign, citing the sexual misconduct allegations against him, as well as the New York COVID-19 nursing home scandal about the Cuomo administration’s reported undercounting of COVID-19 nursing home deaths.[198]

January 6 Capitol attack

In a nearly 90-minute Instagram Live video made in February 2021,[199] Ocasio-Cortez said that she had previously experienced sexual assault, and recounted her experience of fear during the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, when she was in her office (in the Cannon House Office Building).[200] She said she had hidden in her office bathroom before being startled by a Capitol Police officer who entered her office suite and shouted “Where is she?” before ordering her and her staff to evacuate to a different House Office Building. Ocasio-Cortez said the officer did not self-identify, and said she first believed the officer’s voice was that of an attacker. She described sheltering in place in Representative Katie Porter‘s office and preparing for what she believed would be an assault by rioters on their offices.[201][202] She said, “I had a very close encounter where I thought I was going to die.”[203]

Biden campaign

In 2024, Ocasio-Cortez has prominently supported the Joe Biden 2024 presidential campaign. She has been called a “critical asset” and a “key surrogate” of the campaign, trying to persuade young voters. She supported Biden on the grounds of climate change, abortion rights, and advancing progressive goals in the case of a Democratic trifecta. She appeared at a Biden campaign abortion rally in June 2024. Ocasio-Cortez has distanced herself from Biden on the issue of the Israel-Hamas war.[204][205]

Other issues

Ocasio-Cortez looks on as President Joe Biden speaks about the administration’s response to Hurricane Ida on September 7, 2021

Ocasio-Cortez reacted to the 2021 Texas power crisis by organizing a fundraiser to provide food, water, and shelter to affected Texans. The fundraiser, which began on February 18, raised $2 million in its first day[206][207] and $5 million by February 21.[208] The money was given to organizations such as the Houston Food Bank and the North Texas Food Bank.[208] Ocasio-Cortez also traveled to Houston to help volunteers with recovery.[209]

On April 15, 2021, Ocasio-Cortez and three other senators called a press conference to announce a bill that they had introduced to implement postal banking pilot programs in rural and low-income urban neighborhoods where millions of households cannot access or afford standard banking services. Ocasio-Cortez described the families she sees in her urban community who need to rely on check cashing companies that charge exorbitant interest rates due to the absence of mainstream banks. “They’ll show up to a check cashing place and imagine cashing your stimulus check…and having 10 to 20% of that check taken away from you.”[210]

On November 5, 2021, Ocasio-Cortez was one of six House Democrats to break with their party and vote against the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, as it was decoupled from the social safety net provisions in the Build Back Better Act.[211][212]

In September 2022, Ocasio-Cortez was asked about running for president. She said, “I hold two contradictory things [in mind] at the same time. One is just the relentless belief that anything is possible. But at the same time, my experience here has given me a front-row seat to how deeply and unconsciously, as well as consciously, so many people in this country hate women. And they hate women of color. People ask me questions about the future. And realistically, I can’t even tell you if I’m going to be alive in September [of 2022]. And that weighs very heavily on me. And it’s not just the right wing. Misogyny transcends political ideology: left, right, center.”[213]

In June 2024, following reports that Clarence Thomas accepted undisclosed gifts from conservatives, Ocasio-Cortez said the Court was “corrupted by money and extremism” and undemocratic. She and Representative Jamie Raskin led a congressional meeting about the Court,[214] and explored options for holding justices accountable.[215] On June 25, they introduced the “High Court Gift Ban Act”, which would impose restrictions on the gifts given to justices.[216]

Committee assignments

Caucus memberships

Political positions

Ocasio-Cortez has been described as progressive,[221] left-wing,[222] left-wing populist,[223] and far-left.[224]

She is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America[8] and embraces the democratic socialist label as part of her political identity. In an interview on NBC’s Meet the Press, she described democratic socialism as “part of what I am. It’s not all of what I am. And I think that that’s a very important distinction.”[225] In response to a question about democratic socialism ultimately calling for an end to capitalism during a Firing Line interview on PBS, she answered: “Ultimately, we are marching towards progress on this issue. I do think that we are going to see an evolution in our economic system of an unprecedented degree, and it’s hard to say what direction that that takes.”[226] Later at a conference she said “To me, capitalism is irredeemable.”[227]

Ocasio-Cortez supports progressive ideals such as workplace democracy,[10] single-payer Medicare for All, tuition-free public college and trade school,[228] a federal job guarantee,[229] the cancellation of all $1.6 trillion of outstanding student debt,[230] guaranteed family leave,[231] abolishing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement,[232] ending the privatization of prisons, enacting gun-control policies,[233] and energy policy relying on 100% renewables.[234] She told Anderson Cooper that she favors policies that “most closely resemble what we see in the UK, in Norway, in Finland, in Sweden”.[235]

Economic policy

Ocasio-Cortez has rejected state socialism, calling it “undemocratic” and “easily corrupted”, but has expressed support for worker control of the means of production.[236] She has also said that market economies are not incompatible with democratic socialism as long as workers control companies, citing worker cooperatives as a model.[237]

Ocasio-Cortez is open to using Modern Monetary Theory (MMT), a heterodox economic theory with little support among mainstream academics,[238] as an economic pathway to fund and enable implementation of her policy goals.[239] She was among the 46 House Democrats who voted against final passage of the Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2023.[240] Ocasio-Cortez has called for reducing defense spending.[241] In December 2022, she was the only House Democrat to vote against an omnibus spending package because of increased funding for defense and federal agencies that oversee immigration.[242]

In late 2020, Ocasio-Cortez and Rashida Tlaib proposed a public banking bill to encourage creation of state and local public banks by giving them access to facilities from the Federal Reserve and setting national guidelines on public banking.[243] In April 2021, Ocasio-Cortez announced a bill that she and three senators had introduced to implement postal banking pilot programs in rural and low-income urban neighborhoods where millions of households cannot access or afford standard banking services.[210]

Ocasio-Cortez has been a vocal supporter of labor rights, including a $15 per hour federal minimum wage.[244] In May 2019, she returned to bartending at the Queensboro Restaurant in Jackson Heights, Queens, to promote the Raise the Wage Act, which would increase the minimum hourly wage for restaurant servers and other tipped workers from $2.13 to $15. Speaking to restaurant workers, customers and reporters, she criticized an exemption in U.S. minimum wage law for restaurants and the service sector that allows them to be paid less than $7.25 per hour, saying, “Any job that pays $2.13 per hour is not a job, it is indentured servitude.”[245][246] On January 20, 2021, Ocasio-Cortez skipped the inauguration of Joe Biden in order to join the 2021 Hunts Point Produce Market strike in the Bronx.[247]

Ocasio-Cortez and Bernie Sanders in 2019

In September 2019, Ocasio-Cortez introduced an anti-poverty policy proposal (packaged in a bundle called “A Just Society”) that would take into account the cost of childcare, health care, and “new necessities” like Internet access when measuring poverty. The proposal would cap annual rent increases and ensure access to social welfare programs for people with convictions and undocumented immigrants.[248] According to the U.S. census, about 40 million Americans live in poverty.

Ocasio-Cortez has proposed a marginal tax as high as 70% on income above $10 million to pay for the Green New Deal. According to tax experts contacted by The Washington Post, this tax would bring in extra revenue of $720 billion per decade.[249][250] But an analysis by the think tank Tax Foundation estimated that, after accounting for macroeconomic effects, the proposal would increase tax revenue by $189.1 billion over ten years if it is applied only to ordinary income, or decrease tax revenue by 53.1 billion if it is applied to all forms of income, including capital gains.[251] Ocasio-Cortez has opposed and voted against the pay-as-you-go rule supported by Democratic leaders, which requires deficit-neutral fiscal policy, with all new expenditures balanced by tax increases or spending cuts. She and Representative Ro Khanna have condemned the rule for hamstringing new or expanded progressive policies.[252][253] She cites Modern Monetary Theory as a justification for higher deficits to finance her agenda.[239][254] Drawing a parallel with the Great Depression, she has argued that the Green New Deal needs deficit spending like the original New Deal.[255]

Ocasio-Cortez opposed a planned deal by New York City to give $3 billion in state and city subsidies and tax breaks to build a secondary headquarters (Amazon HQ2) that was expected to bring in $27 billion in tax revenue for the city and state, in an area near her congressional district, saying that the city should instead itself invest $3 billion in the district.[256][257][258] Some commentators criticized her remarks on the grounds that she did not understand tax breaks are discounts on money paid to, not by, the government, that “New York does not have $3 billion in cash” it would “give” to Amazon, and that between 25,000 and 40,000 new jobs, in addition to the high-paying tech jobs Amazon would have created, disappeared when Amazon left. Conservative columnist Marc Thiessen argued that “her economic illiteracy is dangerous” because “by helping to drive Amazon away, she did not save New York $3 billion; she cost New York $27 billion.”[259]


Ocasio-Cortez speaks on a Green New Deal in front of the Capitol Building in February 2019.

Ocasio-Cortez has called for “more environmental hardliners in Congress”,[255] calling climate change “the single biggest national security threat for the United States and the single biggest threat to worldwide industrialized civilization”.[260] Referring to a recent United Nations report indicating that the effects of climate change could become irreversible unless carbon emissions are reined in within the next 12 years, she has argued that global warming must be addressed immediately to avert human extinction.[261][262][263]

Ocasio-Cortez’s environmental plan, the Green New Deal, advocates for the U.S. to transition to an electrical grid running on 100% renewable energy[182] and to end the use of fossil fuels within ten years. The changes, estimated to cost roughly $2.5 trillion per year, would be financed in part by higher taxes on the wealthy.[264][265][266] She has said she has an “open mind” about nuclear power‘s role in the Green New Deal,[267] but has been criticized for ignoring it in her proposals for the deal.[268][269]

In 2024, Ocasio-Cortez, supported by Bowman and Sanders, introduced the “Green New Deal for Public Housing”, a plan to fund the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) and help it transition to clean energy.[270]

Foreign policy

Ocasio-Cortez with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in February 2023


Ocasio-Cortez criticized the American companies Activision Blizzard and Apple for censoring pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong.[271] She co-signed a letter to Activision Blizzard CEO Bobby Kotick that read, “As China amplifies its campaign of intimidation, you and your company must decide whether to look beyond the bottom line and promote American values—like freedom of speech and thought—or to give in to Beijing’s demands in order to preserve market access.”[272]

A bipartisan letter by Ocasio-Cortez and seven other lawmakers fiercely criticized the NBA‘s handling of a controversy involving a tweet by Houston Rockets general manager Daryl Morey supporting pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong. The lawmakers wrote that the NBA’s response not only “sold out an American citizen” but also “reinforces the Chinese Communist Party view that those who point to Chinese repression in Hong Kong are as best stating opinions, not facts”, as well as being “a betrayal of fundamental American values”.[273][274][275]


Ocasio-Cortez voted to withdraw U.S. military aid for Saudi Arabia’s intervention in Yemen.[276]


Ocasio-Cortez criticized President Trump’s administration for escalating tensions with Iran, saying that it would bring the country into a “military conflict that is completely irresponsible”.[277]


In May 2018, Ocasio-Cortez criticized the Israel Defense Forces‘ use of deadly force against Palestinians participating in the 2018 Gaza border protests, calling it a “massacre” in a tweet.[278][279] In a July 2018 interview, she said she was “a proponent of a two-state solution[226] and called Israel’s presence in the West Bank an “occupation of Palestine“. After being asked to elaborate, she responded she was not “the expert on geopolitics on this issue”.[280][281] Her use of the term “occupation” drew backlash from a number of pro-Israel groups and commentators.[282][280] Others defended her remarks, citing the United Nations’ designation of the territory in the West Bank as occupied.[283][284] In July 2019, Ocasio-Cortez voted against a House resolution introduced by Representative Brad Schneider condemning the Global Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement targeting Israel.[285] The resolution passed 398–17.[286]

Ocasio-Cortez warned that Israel’s planned annexation of Palestinian territories in the occupied West Bank “would lay the groundwork for Israel becoming an apartheid state“.[287] She wrote to U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo that she would work to “pursue legislation that conditions the $3.8 billion in U.S. military funding to Israel to ensure that U.S. taxpayers are not supporting annexation in any way”.[287] AIPAC condemned the letter, saying it threatened the U.S.-Israel relationship.[288]

In May 2021, Ocasio-Cortez issued a statement condemning Israel’s evictions of Palestinian families from their homes in Israeli-occupied East Jerusalem.[289] She criticized President Biden for saying Israel “has a right to defend itself”, arguing that “blanket statements like these [with] little context or acknowledgement of what precipitated this cycle of violence—namely, the expulsions of Palestinians and attacks on Al Aqsa—dehumanize Palestinians [and] imply the US will look the other way at human rights violations.”[290]

On September 23, 2021, Ocasio-Cortez abruptly changed her vote from “no” to “present” on a bill providing $1 billion for Israel’s Iron Dome missile defense system, citing the “hateful targeting” she had received surrounding the bill. She apologized for her vote after receiving criticism on social media from some supporters of Israel and of Palestine but maintained her opposition to the bill due to Israel’s “persistent human rights abuses against the Palestinian people”.[291]

On July 18, 2023, Ocasio-Cortez and eight other progressive Democrats (Jamaal Bowman, Cori Bush, Andre Carson, Summer Lee, Ilhan Omar, Ayanna Pressley, Delia Ramirez, and Rashida Tlaib), voted against a congressional non-binding resolution proposed by August Pfluger that “the State of Israel is not a racist or apartheid state”, that Congress rejects “all forms of antisemitism and xenophobia”, and that “the United States will always be a staunch partner and supporter of Israel”. She argued that it was wrong to pair “accusations of antisemitism with real concerns around the human rights crisis in the region” and that combining a “vote on antisemitism and discussion of apartheid and…two-tier legal systems is very cynical”.[292]

In 2023, Ocasio-Cortez condemned the October 7 attacks, calling them “horrifying attacks against innocent civilians”.[293] On October 12, she criticized Israel’s plans to block electricity, water and fuel from Gaza, calling it a “collective punishment and a violation of international law.”[294] On October 16, she signed a resolution calling for a ceasefire in the war.[295] On March 22, 2024, she characterized Israel’s assault on Gaza and the Gaza Strip famine as genocide.[296]

Asked what the Biden administration could have done better in the situation, Ocasio-Cortez said it could have enforced its red line on the Rafah offensive, investigated its weapons shipments to Israel, provided heavier sanctions in response to the occupation of the West Bank, and “rein in” Netanyahu.[297] In a separate statement, she called for halting weapons transfers to Israel.[298]

In January 2024, the U.S. and other countries cut funding to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) over intelligence reports that certain staff members participated in the Hamas attacks.[299] On January 29, Ocasio-Cortez acknowledged the reports, but said that cutting funding to UNRWA was “unacceptable” and that the U.S. “should restore aid immediately” because of the agency’s humanitarian work.[300]


In 2023, Ocasio-Cortez was among 56 Democrats to vote in favor of H.Con.Res. 21, which directed President Joe Biden to remove U.S. troops from Syria within 180 days.[301][302]



After the contentious confirmation of Supreme Court Justice Amy Coney Barrett, Ocasio-Cortez urged Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden to expand the court if he won and their party achieved a Senate majority.[303] In April 2021, she supported a bill to increase the Court’s size.[304] She again called for expansion in September 2021 after the Court voted not to grant an emergency stay of the Texas Heartbeat Bill.[305]

In March 2022, Ocasio-Cortez called on Justice Clarence Thomas to resign over his wife’s texts urging President Trump’s chief of staff to overturn the 2020 presidential election, raising a possible impeachment effort if he did not.[306] After the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade in June 2022, Ocasio-Cortez called for the impeachment of Justices Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. She alleged that the two had lied under oath about their views on Roe during their confirmation hearings.[307]

In June 2022, after the Supreme Court made several consequential rulings and granted certiorari to Moore v. Harper, which has a potential impact on future elections, Ocasio-Cortez tweeted that the U.S. was “witnessing a judicial coup in progress”.[308][309] The next month, she claimed the Court had “gone rogue” and that impeachment, expansion, introduction of ethics rules and recusal requirements should be considered. She added that Thomas should certainly be impeached.[310] Two days later, she led House progressives calling on the Democratic leadership in Congress to strip the Court of its jurisdiction “in the areas of abortion, marriage equality, non-procreative intimacy, and contraception”. They pointed to Thomas’s concurring opinion in Dobbs, which suggested revisiting cases that established a constitutional right to contraception, same-sex marriage, and gay sex.[311]

On July 1, after the court ruled in Trump v. United States that presidents have immunity from criminal prosecution for official actions, Ocasio-Cortez announced she would file articles of impeachment against justices. She said the court was corrupt and that Congress must defend the nation against an “authoritarian capture”.[312][313]

Pay raises for Congress

In 2019, Ocasio-Cortez supported pay raises for Congress. She wrote, “It’s not a fun or politically popular position to take. But consistency is important. ALL workers should get cost of living increases. That’s why minimum wage should be pegged to inflation, too.” Members of Congress make $174,000 annually; the Speaker makes $223,500 and House leaders make $193,400. Republican Kevin McCarthy joined her in supporting the pay raise, saying he did not want Congress to be a place where only the wealthy can afford to serve. Colleagues such as Joe Cunningham opposed the measure, saying, “We didn’t come up here to give ourselves a raise”.[314]

Trump impeachments

On June 28, 2018, Ocasio-Cortez told CNN she would support the first impeachment of President Trump, citing Trump’s alleged violations of the Emoluments Clause and saying that “we have to hold everyone accountable and that no person is above that law.”[315][316]

Ocasio-Cortez supported impeaching Trump a second time for his attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election. On January 3, 2021, she said that the Trump–Raffensperger phone call consituted an impeachable offense, and called it a “despicable abuse of power”.[317] After January 6, she and many other Democrats co-sponsored an article of impeachment against Trump. Ocasio-Cortez said that Trump should be permanently barred from office and impeached.[318]

Puerto Rico

Ocasio-Cortez has called for “solidarity with Puerto Rico“. She has advocated for granting Puerto Ricans further civil rights, regardless of Puerto Rico’s legal classification. She advocates for voting rights and disaster relief. Ocasio-Cortez was critical of FEMA‘s response to Hurricane Maria and the federal government’s unwillingness to address Puerto Rico’s political status.[319] She believes the federal government should increase investment in Puerto Rico.[233] In August 2020, Ocasio-Cortez and Nydia Velázquez introduced the Puerto Rico Self-Determination Act of 2020, which was referred to the House Committee on Natural Resources.[320][321]

On March 18, 2021, Ocasio-Cortez, Velázquez and Senator Bob Menendez introduced a new version, the Puerto Rico Self-Determination Act of 2021,[322] with over 70 co-sponsors in the House and seven co-sponsors in the Senate, including one Republican.[323]


Ocasio-Cortez supports transitioning to a single-payer healthcare system and considers medical care a human right.[324][325] She says that a single government health insurer should cover every American, reducing overall costs.[229] Her campaign website says, “Almost every other developed nation in the world has universal healthcare. It’s time the United States catch up to the rest of the world in ensuring all people have real healthcare coverage that doesn’t break the bank.”[325] Many 2020 Democratic presidential candidates adopted the Medicare-for-all proposal.[231]

In June 2019 and in July 2021, Ocasio-Cortez proposed legislation that would remove restrictions placed on researching the medical use of psilocybin.[326][327]

Social issues

Ocasio-Cortez with Camila Vallejo in Chile in 2023

Abortion rights

Ocasio-Cortez supports codifying the right to abortion, and is a member of the House pro-choice caucus.[328] On July 19, 2022, after the Supreme Court overruled Roe v. Wade in Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, she and 17 other members of Congress were arrested in an act of civil disobedience for refusing to clear a street during a protest for reproductive rights outside the Supreme Court Building.[329][330]


Ocasio-Cortez campaigned in favor of establishing tuition-free public colleges and trade schools. She has said she is still paying off student loans herself and wants to cancel all student debt.[325]


Ocasio-Cortez has expressed support for defunding and abolishing the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency on multiple occasions. In February 2018 she called it “a product of the Bush-era Patriot Act suite of legislation” and “an enforcement agency that takes on more of a paramilitary tone every single day”.[331][332] That June, she said she would “stop short of fully disbanding the agency”, and would rather “create a pathway to citizenship for more immigrants through decriminalization”.[333] She later clarified that this does not mean ceasing all deportations.[334] Two days before the primary election, Ocasio-Cortez attended a protest at an ICE child-detention center in Tornillo, Texas.[335] She was the only Democrat to vote against H.R. 648, a bill to fund and reopen the government, because it funded ICE.[336]

In January 2021, Ocasio-Cortez expressed support for the Roadmap to Freedom resolution to guide future immigration policy championed by Representative Pramila Jayapal. The resolution aims to safeguard vulnerable migrants while reducing criminal prosecutions of migrants.[337]

Detention centers for undocumented immigrants

In June 2019, Ocasio-Cortez compared the detention centers for undocumented immigrants under the Trump administration at the Mexico–United States border to “concentration camps“. She cited “expert analysis”, linking to an Esquire article quoting Andrea Pitzer, author of One Long Night: A Global History of Concentration Camps, who had made a similar claim.[338][339] Some academics supported Ocasio-Cortez’s use of the term for the forced detention of immigrants;[340][341] other figures strongly criticized it, saying it showed disrespect for Holocaust victims.[342] In response to criticism from both Republicans and Democrats,[343] Ocasio-Cortez said they had conflated concentration camps (“the mass detention of civilians without trial”) with death camps.[344] She refused to apologize for using the term: “If that makes you uncomfortable, fight the camps, not the nomenclature.”[345]

In July 2019, Ocasio-Cortez visited migrant detention centers and other facilities in Texas as part of a congressional delegation to witness the border crisis firsthand. She described the conditions as “horrifying”. She said that women in one cell said they had not had access to showers for two weeks and were told to drink water from the toilet when their sink broke, and that one woman said that her daughters had been taken from her two weeks earlier and she did not know where they were.[346][347]

In February 2021, when the Biden administration reopened a Carrizo Springs, Texas, center to house unaccompanied migrant children, Ocasio-Cortez responded that such actions “never will be okay—no matter the administration or party”.[348] For short-term measures to address the situation, she called for mandatory licensing for such centers and urged reconsideration of how the centers are “contracted out”.[349]

LGBT+ rights

Ocasio-Cortez is a proponent of LGBT+ rights and equality. She has said she supports the community and thanked its members for their role in her campaign.[350][233] At the January 2019 New York City Women’s March in Manhattan, Ocasio-Cortez gave a detailed speech in support of measures needed to ensure LGBT+ equality in the workplace and elsewhere.[351] She has also spoken in support of transgender rights, specifically saying, “Trans rights are civil rights are human rights.”[352] Later, she appeared on a video game live stream to help raise money for Mermaids, a UK-based charity for transgender children.[353]

At the House Committee on Oversight and Reform on February 27, 2020, Ocasio-Cortez argued for LGBTQ equality in the context of her religious background. Referencing a Catholic hospital that refused a hysterectomy for a transgender man,[354] she argued, “[t]here is nothing holy about rejecting medical care of people, no matter who they are, on the grounds of what their identity is. There is nothing holy about turning someone away from a hospital.”[355][356]

Police funding

Ocasio-Cortez supports the “defund the police” movement. Asked to give her interpretation of the movement, she said, “It looks like a suburb … affluent white communities already … fund youth, health, housing etc. more than they fund police. When a teenager or preteen does something harmful in a suburb … White communities bend over backwards to find alternatives to incarceration … Why don’t we treat Black and Brown people the same way?”[357]

Political endorsements

Ocasio-Cortez endorsed Bernie Sanders in the 2020 presidential election and appeared with him at speaking engagements. Campaign rallies she attended with him drew the largest crowds of any presidential rally. On January 25, she joined Michael Moore to fill in for Sanders at a rally at the University of Iowa while Sanders was attending the Senate’s Trump impeachment trial.[358][359]

In January 2020, Ocasio-Cortez announced the formation of a PAC called Courage to Change,[360] which announced its first endorsements of progressive Democrats on February 21, 2020.[361] Some progressive commentators subsequently criticized Ocasio-Cortez for having only endorsed two Democratic primary challengers by March 3. A notable omission was Cori Bush, who had received an endorsement from Ocasio-Cortez two years prior.[362]

In July 2023, Ocasio-Cortez endorsed President Joe Biden in his reelection campaign in the 2024 presidential election.[363]

In 2024, Ocasio-Cortez endorsed Jamaal Bowman, a member of the Squad.[364] During his campaign, Ocasio-Cortez held a rally in support of him with Sanders.[365]

Congressional service

United States Congressional service
2019–2021116thU.S. HouseDemocraticDonald TrumpFinancial Services, Oversight and ReformDistrict 14
2021–2023117thDonald Trump
Joe Biden
2023–2025118thU.S. HouseRepublicanJoe BidenNatural Resources, Oversight and AccountabilityDistrict 14

Electoral history


2018 New York’s 14th congressional district Democratic primary
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez 16,898 56.7
DemocraticJoseph Crowley (incumbent)12,88043.3
Total votes29,778 100.0
2018 New York’s 14th congressional district election
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez 110,318 78.2
RepublicanAnthony Pappas19,20213.6
Working FamiliesJoseph Crowley8,0755.7
Women’s EqualityJoseph Crowley1,2730.9
TotalJoseph Crowley (incumbent)9,3486.6
ConservativeElizabeth Perri2,2541.6
Total votes141,122 100.0
Democratic hold


2020 New York’s 14th congressional district Democratic primary[366]
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez (incumbent) 46,577 74.6
DemocraticMichelle Caruso-Cabrera11,33718.2
DemocraticBadrun Khan3,1195.0
DemocraticSam Sloan1,4062.3
Total votes62,439 100.0
2020 New York’s 14th congressional district general election
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez (incumbent) 152,661 71.6
RepublicanJohn Cummings52,47724.6
ConservativeJohn Cummings5,9632.8
TotalJohn Cummings58,44027.4
SAMMichelle Caruso-Cabrera2,0001.0
Total votes213,101 100.0
Democratic hold


2022 New York’s 14th congressional district general election[d]
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez74,05063.40
Working FamiliesAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez8,4037.19
TotalAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez (incumbent)82,45370.60
RepublicanTina Forte31,93527.34
ConservativeDesi Cuellar2,2081.89
Total votes116,790 100.0
Democratic hold


2024 New York’s 14th congressional district Democratic primary[367]
DemocraticAlexandria Ocasio-Cortez (incumbent) 19,070 82.1
DemocraticMartin Dolan4,14917.9
Total votes23,219 100.0

Awards and honors

The MIT Lincoln Laboratory named the asteroid 23238 Ocasio-Cortez after her when she was a senior in high school in recognition of her second-place finish in the 2007 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair.[21][22] Ocasio-Cortez was named the 2017 National Hispanic Institute Person of the Year by Ernesto Nieto.[23] In 2019, Ocasio-Cortez received the Adelle Foley Award.[368] She was named as one of the 2019 BBC 100 Women.[369]

Personal life

After the death of Ocasio-Cortez’s father in 2008, her mother and grandmother moved to Florida due to financial hardship.[13][33] She still has family in Puerto Rico, where her grandfather was living in a nursing home[319] before he died in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria.[370] Ocasio-Cortez said that “to be Puerto Rican is to be the descendant of … African Moors [and] slaves, Taino Indians, Spanish colonizers, Jewish refugees, and likely others. We are all of these things and something else all at once—we are Boricua.”[15]

Ocasio-Cortez is a Catholic. She discussed her faith and its impact on her life and her campaign for criminal justice reform in an article she wrote for America, the magazine of the Jesuit order in the United States.[371] She said she has some Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[372]

During the 2018 election campaign, Ocasio-Cortez resided in Parkchester, Bronx, with her partner, web developer Riley Roberts.[373][374][375] They became engaged in April 2022 in Puerto Rico.[376]

In 2021, the watchdog group OpenSecrets, analyzing financial disclosure forms, ranked Ocasio-Cortez one of the least wealthy members of the 116th Congress, with a maximum net worth of $30,000.[377]

In May 2021, Ocasio-Cortez said that she had been in psychotherapy after the January 6 United States Capitol attack, which she called “extraordinarily traumatizing”, saying she “did not know if I was going to make it to the end of that day alive”.[378]

Ocasio-Cortez is a fan of the New York Yankees.[379]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Elected on both Democratic Party and WFP ballot lines in New York via electoral fusion.[1]
  2. ^ Democratic Socialists of America is not a registered political party, instead, it is a political organization for those with democratic socialist ideologies.[2]
  3. ^ Alongside Rashida Tlaib, who is a female DSA member that was elected in the same year.[8]
  4. ^ Ocasio-Cortez ran unopposed in her primary.[122]


  1. ^ “New York’s 14th Congressional District election, 2022”. Ballotpedia. Retrieved October 17, 2023.
  2. ^ Stein, Jeff (August 5, 2017). “9 questions about the Democratic Socialists of America you were too embarrassed to ask”. Vox. Retrieved July 11, 2022.
  3. ^ Murphy, Tim (June 26, 2018). “A progressive insurgent just pulled off the biggest Democratic primary upset in years”. Mother Jones. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Krieg, Gregory (June 27, 2018). “A 28-year-old Democratic Socialist just ousted a powerful, 10-term congressman in New York”. Atlanta, Georgia: CNN. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018. in the most shocking upset of a rollicking political season
  5. ^ Merica, Dan; Bradner, Eric (June 27, 2018). “The biggest night so far for progressives and other takeaways from Tuesday night’s primaries”. CNN. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018. It was the most shocking result of 2018’s political season so far 
  6. ^ a b c d e Grigoryan, Nune; Suetzl, Wolfgang (2019). “Hybridized political participation”. In Atkinson, Joshua D.; Kenix, Linda (eds.). Alternative Media Meets Mainstream Politics: Activist Nation Rising. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 190. ISBN 9781498584357. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  7. ^ Watkins, Eli (November 6, 2018). “Ocasio-Cortez to be youngest woman ever elected to Congress”. CNN. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. ^ a b Neufeld, Jennie (June 27, 2018). “Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez is a Democratic Socialists of America member. Here’s what that means”. Vox. Archived from the original on December 3, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  9. ^ Isserman, Maurice (November 8, 2018). “Socialists in the House: A 100-Year History from Victor Berger to Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez”. In These Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
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