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Latest New York onAir News

The base content in each post in this New York onAir Hub has been updated as of 12/20/23. In addition to the eight posts on the home page, in depth posts on each US House member and posts on New York government and elections have been started. These posts have been shared with the US onAir Hub and will updated in the US onAir automatically when they are updated in this hub.

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Web Links

State Representatives

Governor Kathy Hochul

NY GovernanceCurrent Position: Governor since 2021
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Positions:  Lt. Governor from 2015 to 2021

Kathy Hochul is the 57th and first female Governor of New York State.

Governor Kathy Hochul began her career in public service on her local Town Board before serving as Erie County Clerk, and then as a member of Congress for New York’s 26th Congressional District. She more recently served in statewide office as Lieutenant Governor and now as the first female Governor of the State of New York.

OnAir Post: Kathy Hochul – NY

US Representatives

Senator Chuck Schumer

Chuck Schumer 2Current Position: US Senator since 1998
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Positions: State Senator from 1981 – 1999; State Delegate from 1975 – 1980
Other Positions:   Senate Majority Leader

U.S. Senator Charles Ellis “Chuck” Schumer has served as Senate Majority Leader since 2021[3] and the senior United States senator from New York since 1999. He has led the Senate Democratic Caucus since 2017 and was Senate Minority Leader from 2017 to 2021. Schumer is in his fifth Senate term, making him the longest-serving US senator from New York, having surpassed Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Jacob K. Javits in 2023. He is the dean of New York’s congressional delegation.

OnAir Post: Chuck Schumer – NY

Senator Kirsten Gillibrand

Kirsten Gillibrand 2Current Position: US Senator since 2009
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: US Representative from 2007 – 2009

Other Positions:  
Chair, Subcommittee on Livestock, Marketing and Agriculture Security –  Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
Chair, Subcommittee on Personnel – Armed Services

Senator Kirsten Gillibrand’s top priorities in the United States Senate include creating more well-paying jobs to rebuild the middle class, increasing access to good, affordable healthcare and improving educational opportunities from pre-k to college or vocational training.

Source: Government page

OnAir Post: Kirsten Gillibrand – NY

Nick LaLota NY-01

Nick LaLota - NY 01Current Position: US Representative of NY 1st District since 2023
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position: Chief of Staff to the Suffolk County Legislature;
Commissioner of the Suffolk County Board of Elections
District:  Includes the eastern two-thirds of Suffolk County, including the northern portion of Brookhaven

Nick LaLota graduated from  from the United States Naval Academy. He served in the U.S. Navy for eight years, serving three overseas deployments. He earned a Master of Business Administration and a Juris Doctor from Hofstra University. LaLota served as chief of staff to Suffolk County Presiding Officer Kevin McCaffrey. He also served on the Suffolk Board of Elections as well as a trustee for the village of Amityville, New York.[

OnAir Post: Nick LaLota NY-01

Andrew Garbarino NY-02

Andrew Garbarino NY-02Current Position: US Representative of NY 2nd District since 2021
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position: State Delegate from 2013 – 2020
District: Includes southwestern Suffolk County and a small portion of southeastern Nassau County.

Andrew Reed Garbarino is an American attorney who  served as the New York State Assemblyman for the 7th district from 2013 to 2020. After graduating from law school, Garbarino worked at his family law firm in Sayville. His family also owns numerous small businesses in communities in the district.

OnAir Post: Andrew Garbarino NY-02

Anthony D’Esposito NY-04

Anthony D'Esposito - NY 04Current Position: US Representative of NY 4th District since 2023
Affiliation: Republican
Former Positions:  NYPD Detective
Chief of the Island Park Fire Department
District: central and southern Nassau County

Congressman Anthony D’Esposito represents New York’s 4th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives.  The district, comprising the majority of the Town of Hempstead and the City of Long Beach on Long Island, is a culturally diverse suburban locale known for its miles of sandy beaches, thriving downtown business districts, and quaint communities.

OnAir Post: Anthony D’Esposito NY-04

Gregory Meeks NY-05

Gregory Meeks 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 5 since 1998
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 1993 – 1998
Other Positions:   Ranking member, Foreign Affairs Committee
District: Queens

Gregory W. Meeks is a lawyer who  has served his district for seventeen year tenure in the U.S. House of Representatives. In the last Congress, Meeks’s district included most of southeastern Queens, including Jamaica, Laurelton, Rosedale, Cambria Heights, Saint Albans, Springfield Gardens, The Rockaways, and the John F. Kennedy International Airport.

OnAir Post: Gregory Meeks NY-05

Grace Meng NY-06

Grace Meng 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 6 since 2013
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 2009 – 2012
District: Queens

U.S. Congresswoman Grace Meng is serving her fifth term in the United States House of Representatives. Grace represents the Sixth Congressional District of New York encompassing the New York City borough of Queens, including west, central and northeast Queens.

Grace is the first and only Asian American Member of Congress from New York State and the first female Congressmember from Queens since former Vice Presidential nominee Geraldine Ferraro.

OnAir Post: Grace Meng NY-06

Nydia Velázquez NY-07

Nydia Velázquez 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 7 since 1993
Affiliation: Democrat
Candidate: 2021 US Senator
Former Position: New York City Council from 1993 – 2013
Other Positions:   Chair, House Small Business Committee
District:  Includes parts of Brooklyn and Queens

Velázquez chaired the Congressional Hispanic Caucus until January 3, 2011. Her district, in New York City, was numbered the 12th district from 1993 to 2013 and has been numbered the 7th district since 2013. Velázquez is the first Puerto Rican woman to serve in the United States Congress.

OnAir Post: Nydia Velázquez NY-07

Hakeem Jeffries NY-08

Hakeem Jeffries 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 8 since 2013
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 2007 – 2012
Other Position:  Chair, House Democratic Caucus
District:  Borough of Brooklyn

Hakeem Jeffries, an attorney, represents the diverse Eighth Congressional District of New York, an area that encompasses large parts of Brooklyn and a section of Queens. He has served as House Minority Leader and Leader of the House Democratic Caucus since 2023.

In Congress, Jeffries chaired the House Democratic Caucus from 2019 to 2023. The members of the caucus unanimously elected him to succeed Nancy Pelosi as leader in November 2022. This made him the first African American to lead a party in either chamber of the United States Congress.

OnAir Post: Hakeem Jeffries NY-08

Yvette Clarke NY-09

Yvette Clarke 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 9 since 2007
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: New York City Council from 2002 – 2006
Other Positions:   Chair, Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Innovation – Homeland Security
District:  The district is located entirely within Brooklyn.

Before entering politics, Clarke worked as a childcare specialist and trained community residents to care for the children of working parents. Later, she served as an assistant to State Senator Velmanette Montgomery of Brooklyn and Assemblywoman Barbara Clark, of Queens.

OnAir Post: Yvette Clarke NY-09

Dan Goldman NY-10

Dan Goldman NY-10Current Position: US Representative of NY 10th District since 2023
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: Lead majority counsel in the first impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump
District: Lower Manhattan and western Brooklyn neighborhoods

Daniel Sachs Goldman is an American attorney and heir, who  previously served as lead majority counsel in the first impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump and lead counsel to House Managers in Trump’s subsequent impeachment trial. Goldman is among the wealthiest members of Congress, with an estimated personal net worth of up to $253 million according to financial disclosure forms.

OnAir Post: Dan Goldman NY-10

Nicole Malliotakis – NY 11

Nicole Malliotakis 1Current Position:  US Representative of NY 11th District since 2021
Affiliation:  Republican
Former Position:  State Delegate from 2011 – 2020
District:  Includes all of Staten Island and parts of southern Brooklyn,

Malliotakis is the only Republican representing any part of New York City in Congress, and is one of four female Republican elected officials in New York City, with the other three serving on the New York City Council. In 2020, she defeated incumbent Representative Max Rose. She was the Republican nominee for mayor of New York City in the 2017 election, which she lost to incumbent Democrat Bill de Blasio

OnAir Post: Nicole Malliotakis – NY 11

Jerry Nadler NY-12

Jerrold Nadler 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 10 since 1992
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 1977 – 1992
District: Includes the Upper West Side constituency (former District 10) represented by Nadler since the 1990s, the Upper East Side, and all of Midtown Manhattan.

Nadler chaired the House Judiciary Committee from 2019 to 2023. In his 17th term in Congress, Nadler is the dean of New York’s U.S. House delegation. Before his election to Congress, he served eight terms as a New York State Assemblyman.

Trump impeachment hearing: Chairman Jerrold Nadler’s opening statement

OnAir Post: Jerry Nadler NY-12

Adriano Espaillat NY-13

Adriano Espaillat 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 13 since 2017
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 1997 – 2010
District: Includes Upper Manhattan and parts of the West Bronx.

Featured Quote: 
Just a reminder that Mitch McConnell blocked Merrick Garland 8 months before an election but confirmed Amy Coney Barrett 8 days before an election when 65 million people had already voted. Court packing is the Republican playbook.

Adriano Espaillat is the first Dominican American and first formerly Undocumented immigrant to serve in Congress.  He challenged then-Representative Charles Rangel in the Democratic primaries in 2012 and 2014, eventually winning the Democratic nomination in 2016 after Rangel announced his retirement. Espaillat represents one of the most Democratic districts in the country, with a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+38.

OnAir Post: Adriano Espaillat NY-13

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez NY-14

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 14 since 2019
Affiliation: Democrat
District:  Eeastern part of The Bronx and part of north-central Queens.

Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez is a third-generation Bronxite, educator, and organizer. Ocasio-Cortez grew up experiencing the reality of New York’s rising income inequality, inspiring her to organize her community and run for office on a progressive platform with a campaign that rejects corporate PAC funds.

Taking office at age 29, Ocasio-Cortez is the youngest woman ever to serve in the United States Congress.[She has been noted for her substantial social media presence relative to her fellow members of Congress.

OnAir Post: Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez NY-14

Ritchie Torres NY-15

Ritchie TorresCurrent Position: US Representative of NY 15th District since 2021
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: New York City Council from 2014 – 2020
District: Most of the South Bronx.

Featured Quote: 
It’s official. We won! It is the honor of a lifetime to be able to serve our community in Washington DC. The counting took longer than expected, but today the @BOENYC
certified our victory & I want to say thank you..

Rep. Ritchie Torres:was the first openly gay candidate to be elected to legislative office in the Bronx, and the council’s youngest member. Torres chaired the Committee on Public Housing, and was a deputy majority leader.

OnAir Post: Ritchie Torres NY-15

Jamaal Bowman NY-16

Jamaal Bowman 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 16 since 2021
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: Educator from 2003 – 2020
Other Positions:  Vice Chair, Committee on Education and Labor
District:  Covers the southern half of Westchester County, including Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, and Bowman’s hometown of Yonkers

Featured Quote: 
I spent 20 years as an educator, seeing firsthand how transforming a child’s learning environment can unlock their full potential. The Green New Deal for Public Schools is about transforming our schools into cleaner spaces for our children and our planet.

Bowman is the founder and former principal of the Cornerstone Academy for Social Action, a public middle school in Eastchester, Bronx.  Bowman defeated 16-term incumbent Eliot Engel in the 2020 Democratic primary. Bowman is a member of the Squad, an informal group of progressive House Democrats.

OnAir Post: Jamaal Bowman NY-16

Mike Lawler NY-17

Mike Lawler NY-17 1Current Position: US Representative of NY 17th District since 2023
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position:  State Assembly from 20221 to 2022 for the 97th District
District: Includes all of Rockland County and Putnam County, as well as most of Northern Westchester County

He earned his Bachelor of Science degree in accounting and finance from Manhattan College in 2009.Lawler was named valedictorian of his graduating class.

Lawler was a partner at the political communications firm Checkmate Strategies from 2018 until 2022. He previously worked in the Westchester County Executive’s Office as an advisor to Rob Astorino and executive director of the New York State Republican Party.

OnAir Post: Mike Lawler NY-17

Pat Ryan NY-18

Pat Ryan NY-18Current Position: US Representative of NY 18th District since 2023
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position:  Businessman and County executive of Ulster County, New York
District: includes all of Orange County, and most of Dutchess and Ulster Counties.

Ryan served in the United States Army as a military intelligence officer from 2004 to 2009, including two tours in Iraq. He co-founded Praescient Analytics, a software company, in 2011. From 2015 to 2017, he was a senior vice president of Dataminr, an artificial intelligence platform.

OnAir Post: Pat Ryan NY-18

Marc Molinaro NY-19

Marc Molinaro  NY-19 1Current Position: US Representative of NY 19th District since 2021
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position:  New York State Assembly; County executive of Dutchess County
District: Located in New York’s Catskills, Hudson Valley, Southern Tier, and Finger Lakes regions

Marcus J. Molinaro was a member of the Dutchess County Legislature and the New York State Assembly before being elected county executive of Dutchess County, New York in 2011. He was reelected county executive in 2015 and 2019. Molinaro is also a former mayor of Tivoli; when he became mayor at age 19, he was the youngest mayor in the United States.

Molinaro was the Republican nominee for governor of New York in 2018.

OnAir Post: Marc Molinaro NY-19

Paul Tonko NY-20

Paul Tonko 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 20 since 2009
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 1983 – 2007

Other Positions:  Ranking Chair, Subcommittee on Environment & Climate Change
District: It includes all of Albany, Saratoga, and Schenectady counties, and portions of Rensselaer county.

Featured Quote: 
I told my mom I’d make it on a Wheaties Box one day. Proud to show her that dream come true thanks to this great honor, @scicoalition’s 2020 #ChampionofScience award! I will always fight to ensure science drives our politics and not the other way around.

Paul David Tonko Tonko has been called a staunch progressive.

OnAir Post: Paul Tonko NY-20

Elise Stefanik NY-21

Elise Stefanik 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 21 since 2015
Affiliation: Republican
Other Positions:    Chair, House Republican Conference

Featured Quote: 
Joe Biden and Dems’ reckless spending policies created the worst inflation crisis since the Great Recession. And their solution is even worse.

Elise Marie Stefanik is chair of the House Republican Conference since 2021. She is the fourth-ranking House Republican. Stefanik’s district covers most of the North Country and the Adirondack Mountains, some of the outer suburbs of Utica and the Capital District in New York. Stefanik was 30 when first elected in the 2014 U.S. House of Representatives elections in New York (District 21), the youngest woman elected to Congress at the time.

OnAir Post: Elise Stefanik NY-21

Brandon Williams NY-22

Brandon Williams  NY-22 1Current Position: US Representative of NY 21st District since 2021
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position:  Businessman
District: Includes Syracuse, Utica, and Rome.

Williams joined the United States Navy in 1991, where he served as an officer on the submarine the USS Georgia.

Brandon is also a pioneer in innovation, founding a software company that now helps large industrial manufacturers modernize their production plants, secure their critical infrastructure from cyber-attacks, and paves the way for reduced emissions through advances in artificial intelligence.

OnAir Post: Brandon Williams NY-22

Nick Langworthy NY-23

Nick Langworthy  NY-23Current Position: US Representative of NY 23rd District since 2023
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position: Chaired the Erie County, New York Republican Committee
District: comprises six entire counties: Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Chemung, Schuyler, and Steuben Counties, along with parts of Erie County

Nicholas A. Langworthy chairs the New York State Republican Committee. Langworthy was named chair of the committee in July 2019 after having chaired the Erie County, New York Republican Committee since 2010. He is the youngest state chair in party history.

OnAir Post: Nick Langworthy NY-23

Claudia Tenney NY-24

Claudia TenneyCurrent Position: US Representative of NY 24th District since 2021
Affiliation: Republican
Former Position: New York State Assembly from 2011 to 2017
District: includes all or parts  of Cayuga, Wayne, Oswego, Ontario, Jefferson, Livingston, Niagara, Genesee, Wyoming, Seneca, Yates, and Orleans counties

Claudia L. Tenney district covers a large part of Central New York, extending from the east end of Lake Ontario to the Pennsylvania border and includes the cities of Utica, Rome and Binghamton. Redistricting led her to be elected to New York’s 24th district in 2022 for the 2023–2025 term. Tenney is an outspoken supporter of former president Donald Trump.

OnAir Post: Claudia Tenney NY-24

Joseph Morelle NY-25

Joseph Morelle 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 25 since 2018
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Position: State Delegate from 1991 – 2018
District: Monroe County and part of Orleans County, centered on the city of Rochester.

Featured Quote: 
Today marks the 12-year anniversary since the last increase to the federal minimum wage in 2009. The federal minimum wage is STILL $7.25, and working families deserve better. It’s time to #RaiseTheWage.

Joseph D. Morelle was appointed by Speaker Sheldon Silver as majority leader of the New York State Assembly in January 2013 and Morelle served as acting speaker in the Speaker’s absence. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives for New York’s 25th congressional district in November 2018 following the death of longtime Representative Louise Slaughter.

OnAir Post: Joseph Morelle NY-25

Brian Higgins NY-26

Brian Higgins 1Current Position: US Representative of NY District 26 since 2005
Affiliation: Democrat
Former Positions: State Delegate from 1999 – 2004; Buffalo Common Council from 1988 – 1993
District: Includes parts of Erie and Niagara counties.

Brian Michael Higgins was born, raised, and graduated from college in Buffalo, later obtaining graduate degrees from Buffalo State College and Harvard University.

District 26, numbered as the 27th district from 2005 to 2013 but as the 26th since 2013, includes Buffalo and Niagara Falls. Following the 2022 redistricting process, the district now stretches up to Lake Ontario, taking in all or parts of seven additional towns in Niagara County.

OnAir Post: Brian Higgins NY-26

More Information


The flag of New York

The Government of the State of New York, headquartered at the New York State Capitol in Albany, encompasses the administrative structure of the U.S. state of New York, as established by the state’s constitution. Analogously to the US federal government, it is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The head of the executive is the governor. The Legislature consists of the Senate and the Assembly. The Unified Court System consists of the Court of Appeals and lower courts. The state is also divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, which are all municipal corporations with their own government.


The elected executive officers are:

The base wordmark representing New York State and its agencies

There are several (limited to twenty[1]) state government departments:

Regulations are promulgated and published in the New York State Register and compiled in the New York Codes, Rules and Regulations (NYCRR).[3] There are also numerous decisions, opinions, and rulings of state agencies.[4]


The New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The Assembly consists of 150 members; the Senate varies in its number of members, but currently has 63.[5] The Assembly is headed by the speaker; the Senate is headed by the president, a post held ex officio by the lieutenant governor, who only has a tie-breaking “casting vote“, but more often it is presided over by the temporary president or by a senator of the majority leader’s choosing.

The east face of the New York State Capitol in Albany

The Legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the governor’s power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. Furthermore, it has the power to propose amendments to the New York Constitution by a majority vote and then another majority vote following an election. If so proposed, the amendment becomes valid if agreed to by the voters at a referendum. The session laws are published in the official Laws of New York.[6][7] The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York.[6][8]


The New York State Senate has 32 standing committees, this ranks them second place to Mississippi which has 35. The Assembly on the other hand has 37 standing committees which compared to other houses of the nation is the 5th largest. Committees have legislative jurisdiction for the communities or agencies they represent.[9] Committees are responsible for reviewing bills before deciding to report them to the voting floor.

A hallway alongside the upper floor of the New York State Senate chamber, where public viewing galleries are accessible

Standing committees on the Assembly side includes: Aging, Agriculture, Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, Banks, Children and Families, Cities, Codes, Consumer Affairs and Protection, Corporations, Correction, Economic Development, Education, Election Law, Energy, Environmental Conservation, Ethics, Governmental Employees, Governmental Operations, Health, Housing, Insurance, Judiciary, Labor, Libraries and Education Technology, Local Governments, Mental Health, Oversight/Analysis and Investigation, Racing and Wagering, Real Property Taxation, Rules, Small Businesses, Social Services, Tourism/Parks/Arts and Sports Development, Transportation, Veterans Affairs and lastly the Ways and means committee.[10]

Senate Standing Committees: Administrative Regulations Review Commission, Aging, Agriculture, Alcoholism And Substance Abuse, Banks, Budget And Revenues, Children And Families, Cities, Civil Service And Pensions, Codes, Commerce, Economic Development And Small Business, Consumer Protection, Corporations, Authorities And Commissions, Crime Victims, Crime And Correction, Cultural Affairs, Tourism, Parks And Recreation, Domestic Animal Welfare, Education, Elections, Energy And Telecommunication, Environmental Conservation, Ethics And Internal Governance, Finance, Health, Higher Education, Housing, Construction And Community Development, Insurance, Internet And Technology, Investigations And Government Operations, Judiciary, Labor, Legislative Commission On Rural Resources, Legislative Women’s Caucus, Libraries, Local Government, Mental Health And Developmental Disabilities, New York City Education, Racing, Gaming And Wagering, Rules, Science, Technology, Incubation And Entrepreneurship, Social Services, State-Native American Relations, Task Force For Demographic Research And Reapportionment, The New York State Black, Puerto Rican, Hispanic And Asian Legislative Caucus, Transportation, Veterans, Homeland Security And Military Affairs, Women’s Issues.[11]


The New York State Assembly Legislative session is a cycle that takes place from the first month of the year up until a budget has been published by both houses. According to the New York State Legislative Calendar, session convenes January 9th throughout June 19th.[12] Budget deadline is the last week of March, but historically it has dragged on ’til the month of August and can even surpass that if the Senate and the Assembly fails to compromise. During session both houses work both together and independently to introduce bills and propose changes or support for the governor’s executive budget.

During the legislative session for both houses (Senate and Assembly):

  1. Bills are introduced and voted on to become law or not
  2. Resolutions/Proclamations are adopted
  3. Changes to the governor’s Executive Budget are proclaimed


The New York State Unified Court System interprets and applies the law of New York, ensures equal justice under law, and provides a mechanism for dispute resolution. The court system in New York tends to produce mild confusion for outsiders.[13][14] In general, the judicial system is composed of the trial courts, consisting of the superior courts and the local courts, and the appellate courts.[15]

The appellate courts are the:[15]

The superior courts are the:[15]

And the inferior courts are the local courts:[15]

The highest court of appeal is the Court of Appeals (instead of the “Supreme Court”) whereas the primary felony trial court is the County Court (or the Supreme Court in New York City). The Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The New York City courts make up the largest local court system. The system is administered by the chief judge of the Court of Appeals, also known as the chief judge of New York, the chief administrative judge, the Office of Court Administration and other agencies.

Local government

Fans gather in front of New York City Hall in October, 1986 to celebrate the New York Mets' World Series championship
An event outside New York City Hall in Manhattan

The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, which are all municipal corporations with their own government that provide most local government services.[16] Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is not dependent on population or land area, but rather by the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the New York State Legislature.[17][18][19] Each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution,[20] and a local law has a status equivalent with a law enacted by the Legislature (subject to certain exceptions and restrictions).[21] New York also has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school and fire districts as well as New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as authorities or development corporations.[20] New York has 62 counties,[22][23] which are subdivided into 932 towns[19] and 62 cities;[18] it also has 10 Indian reservations.[24] In total, the state has over 3400 active local governments and over 4200 taxing jurisdictions.[25][26]

In 1898, when New York City was consolidated into its present form, all previous town and county governments within it were abolished in favor of the present five boroughs and unified, centralized city government (the New York City government).[27]

Other governments

Tribal government

Native Americans‘ governments are significantly independent of the state and its local governments. New York cannot interfere with tribal self-government, but may regulate conduct on tribal territory concerning non-Native Americans.[28] For example, federal law forbids states and local authorities to tax Indian lands; however, the state can and does tax sales of cigarettes to non-tribe members on tribal territory.[28][29]

See also


  1. ^ Constitution of the State of New York Article V, § 2.
  2. ^ “New York State Department of Veterans’ Services”. Retrieved May 3, 2023.
  3. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 218.
  4. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, pp. 235–253.
  5. ^ McKinley, Jesse (February 24, 2014). “What Is a Majority Vote in the State Senate? The Answer Goes Beyond Simple Math”. The New York Times.
  6. ^ a b Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 30.
  7. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, pp. 47–48.
  8. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, pp. 56–57.
  9. ^ Creelan, Jeremy. “The New York State Legislative process: An Evaluation and Blueprint of Reform” (PDF). Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  10. ^ “Committees, Commissions and Tasks Force”. New York State Assembly. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  11. ^ “”. The New York State Senate. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  12. ^ “New York State Legislative session”. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  13. ^ Kaye, Judith (February 8, 1999), The State of the Judiciary, archived from the original on January 30, 2004, absurdly complex a court system that is difficult to understand, hard to navigate and a burden to administer.
  14. ^ Ward, Robert B. (2006). New York State Government. Rockefeller Institute Press. pp. 140–141, 146. ISBN 978-1-930912-16-8. LCCN 2006050402.
  15. ^ a b c d Gibson & Manz 2004, p. 123.
  16. ^ Gibson & Manz 2004, pp. 257–258.
  17. ^ Local Government Handbook, p. 67.
  18. ^ a b Local Government Handbook, p. 51.
  19. ^ a b Local Government Handbook, p. 60.
  20. ^ a b Local Government Handbook, pp. 29–37.
  21. ^ Adopting Local Laws in New York State (PDF). James A. Coon Local Government Technical Series. New York State Department of State. May 1998. pp. 3–10. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  22. ^ Local Government Handbook, p. 39.
  23. ^ Local Government Handbook, pp. 68–70.
  24. ^ “Certificate of Individual Indian Exemption from State Taxes on Property or Services Delivered on a Reservation” (PDF). New York State Department of Taxation and Finance. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2010. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  25. ^ Individual State Descriptions: 2012 (PDF), 2012 Census of Governments, United States Census Bureau, September 2013, p. 203
  26. ^ Governor Eliot Spitzer (2007). “Executive Order No. 11: Establishing the New York State Commission on Local Government Efficiency and Competitiveness” (PDF). State of New York. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
  27. ^ Local Government Handbook, p. 56.
  28. ^ a b New York State Senate Standing Comm. on Investigations and Gov’t Operations (2010). Executive Refusal: Why the State has Failed to Collect Cigarette Taxes on Native American Reservations (PDF) (Report). New York State Senate. p. 4.
  29. ^ Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wis. v. Vill. of Hobar, 732 F.3d 837 (7th Cir. 2013) (“Because federal law forbids states and local authorities to tax Indian lands, the tribe can’t be forced to pay the assessment decreed by the challenged ordinance if the assessment is a tax.”).

General and cited references

Further reading